GFOA blue book gets an update

The Government Finance Officers Association (or GFOA) is a professional association of state, provincial, and local government finance officers in the United States and Canada. They have recently published the Tenth Edition of Governmental Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Reporting (GAAFR or “Blue Book”) in July 2020. Don’t miss: Yellow book changes GFOA is an organization in …

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What’s the deal with conflicts of interest?

In recent years conflict of interest reporting has become a major topic of discussion during audits, but why? First a conflict of interest can be identified as this: “Any public officer or employee of a public agency who has, or whose relative has, a substantial interest in any contract, sale, purchase or service to such …

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Yellow book changes

Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS), commonly referred to as the “Yellow Book,” were revised and issued in July 2018 by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). For financial audits, attestation engagements, and reviews of financial statements, the changes in the 2018 Yellow Book are effective for the periods ending on or after June 30, …

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Legal compliance questionnaire changes

Every year the Charter School Board publishes the current year changes for the Uniform System of Financial Records for Arizona Charter Schools (USFRCS); also known as the Questionnaire or State requirements. This Questionnaire provides guidelines based on Arizona State Legislature for Charter Schools to comply and hold accountable for financial reporting. As a reminder, Charter …

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USFR for Arizona school districts: Procurement

When Arizona school districts undergo a financial statement audit, a compliance review is also conducted. This review is meant to evaluate whether the school district is compliant or non-compliant with the Uniform System of Financial Records for school districts, commonly referred to as the USFR. The compliance review report is based primarily on the compliance …

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Audit vs Review vs Compilation

A CPA can perform a number of services for an organization based on the organization’s needs. Typically, the three financial statement engagements are an audit, review or compilation. In all three instances the result is a set of financial statements, that are the responsibility of the organization’s management, where different assurances are provided by the …

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Travel expense reimbursement issues at Northern Arizona University – The case for re-evaluating, reviewing and testing travel reimbursement policies and procedures in local governments

Recently the Arizona Auditor General released its report for Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) internal control and compliance for the year ending June 30, 2019. The report includes  findings of travel expense reimbursement issues, mainly that the “University inappropriately paid for $40,277 of the President’s and her spouse’s travel  expenses that conflicted with policies and lacked …

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Internal audits?

An audit can be defined as a process where business records are examined by an auditor to determine whether a business’s financial statements appear to be accurate. There are two types of audits: external and internal. It is important to understand the meaning of the two as your organization may at one-point experience both. It’s …

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Compilation, review or audit: What’s the difference?

For a CPA these three words have a very distinct meaning. But to the non-auditing world, these words can have very different meanings. As the client, you may have found yourself wondering what these words really mean. Should you look into a compilation, review or audit? This article will provide a crash course in audit …

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Continuous auditing technologies in small businesses

The trend of smaller businesses is on a rise for using more continuous auditing technologies. Continuous auditing technology is a way for small businesses to improve their continuous auditing efforts with the purchase of packaged software audit systems. The boom in technology in the past few decades has enabled users to customize anything they’d like. …

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